Eide Bailly, LLP
Allen Gregory is a partner of Eide Bailly, a top 25 CPA firm. With 25+ years of public accounting experience, he provides tax planning from formation to liquidation with flow-through entity taxation, and specializes in evaluating fixed asset capitalization procedures through cost segregation studies for newly constructed, renovated and acquired real estate. Mr. Gregory received a bachelor’s degree in Business Administration from Kent State University and a Masters of Taxation from the University of Denver.
Fundraising Committee Chair, NAIOP Research Foundation
Vice President, Corporate Director of Client Relations,
ECS Group of Companies
Tracy Allen is vice president, corporate director of client relations for ECS (Engineering Consulting Services) located in Chantilly, Virginia. Founded in 1988, Engineering Consulting Services (ECS) is a leader in geotechnical, environmental, construction materials, and facilities engineering. With over 1,400 employees, ECS has grown to more than 50 offices and testing facilities spread across the Mid-Atlantic, Southern, and Midwestern states. Tracy has been a member of NAIOP since 2000. She serves as a faculty member of the NAIOP Center for Education as has been a member of the Trends in Real Estate Development II National Forum since 2011.
Senior Vice President,
Industrial Income Trust
Newport Beach, California
Gregg Boehm is vice president for Industrial Income Trust. Previously, he was director of acquisitions for the Watson Land Company, headquartered in Carson, Calif. Mr. Boehm received a bachelor's degree in Urban Planning & Development and Public Administration from the University of Southern California in 1995 and received his MBA from the University of California at Irvine in 2006.
Executive Vice President,
Los Angeles, Calif.
Tom Bohlinger is executive vice president for CBRE Investment Properties-Institutional Group. Mr. Bohlinger specializes in major office investment sales in the Greater Los Angeles region. He has also lead portfolio dispositions in California, Arizona, Texas, Massachusetts, and Hawaii.
Langan Engineering & Environmental Services, Inc.
Elmwood Park, N.J.
With 25 years of experience, Richard Burrow leads Langan’s national team supporting warehouse/distribution and e-commerce fulfillment center development around the country. He has provided engineering expertise on over 30 million square feet of industrial development throughout the U.S., including recent vacant mall-to-warehouse conversions. Many of Burrow’s projects have received recognition from industry associations such as NAIOP, the Urban Land Institute, and the American Council of Engineering Companies. Burrow is a professional engineer licensed in multiple states across the United States and a LEED Accredited Professional. He received his Bachelor’s in Engineering from the University of Glasgow, Scotland with a concentration in Civil Engineering. He is a board member of NAIOP’s New Jersey Chapter serving as Vice President, Associate Affairs and is a member of a NAIOP E-commerce National Forum.
Vice President ,
Physicians Realty Trust AMO
David G. Domres, CPM® CCIM, is currently vice president with Physicians Realty Trust AMO® headquartered in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
With a career spanning more than 30 years, Domres has been involved with multiple property types providing acquisition, disposition, development, leasing, and asset and property management services.
Locally, Domres was the 2008 president of the Wisconsin Chapter of NAIOP, served on NAIOP’s corporate board and received NAIOP’s 2013 Volunteer of the Year recognition. Domres is a past president of the Institute of Real Estate Management (IREM) Milwaukee Chapter No. 13 where he received the chapter’s CERTIFIED PROPERTY MANAGER® of the Year Award three times. Domres has contributed to numerous articles, publications and books about real estate investment and management.
Domres holds the Certified Commercial Investment Member (CCIM) and Certified Property Manager (CPM®) designations. He is an adjunct instructor with the University of Wisconsin – Stout, Marquette University and IREM.
Holliday Fenoglio Fowler, L.P.
Mr. Fink is a managing director in HFF's Chicago office. Mr. Fink specializes in the disposition, financing and re-capitalization of investment real estate as well as multimarket portfolios through direct sales, financing and structured transactions.
Prior to joining the firm, Mr. Fink was vice president of Eastdil Realty where he was responsible for raising capital across the breadth of real estate product lines including office, hotel, retail, industrial and multi-housing, and across the full spectrum of the capital markets - debt and equity, public and private, domestic and offshore, institutional and non-institutional. Prior to that, he was an acquisitions analyst at Equity Residential Properties Trust and an Associate at the State of Wisconsin Investment Board. Mr. Fink also served as an officer in the United States Air Force.
Jerold Franke was named president of WISPARK LLC., the real estate development subsidiary of Wisconsin Energy Corp., in August 2000. In this role, Franke has executive responsibility over the full-service, real estate development company that plans and constructs master-planned business parks in southeast Wisconsin and northeast Illinois.
President, Great Lakes Region,
Ryan Companies U.S. Inc.
With more than 23 years experience in the real estate industry, Tim Hennelly has a well-established track record of performance in site selection, planning and design concepts, financial packaging, managing construction coordination and lease or sale negotiation. Having previous experience as an executive for several real estate and brokerage firms, Hennelly understands the challenges of the industrial marketplace.
Wiggin and Dana LLP
Elliot G. Kaiman is an attorney based out of the New Haven, Connecticut office of Wiggin and Dana LLP.
Elliot's practice includes real estate, construction, property taxation, and energy and utilities law. In the real estate area he assists clients in a broad range of transactions, including acquisitions and sales, leasing, and development. In his construction law practice Elliot represents project owners, developers, design professionals, and contractors in connection with commercial and high-end residential construction projects. Elliot has significant experience resolving property tax disputes with local assessors and boards of assessment appeals.
Kay Realty Services LLC
Ocean, New Jersey
William Klein has been a recognized leader in all facets of real estate investment for more than 40 years. He has participated in numerous transactions, (many as a managing principal), in all asset classes in the industry. Since 1994, Klein has been the CEO of Kay Realty Services., one of the New Jersey shore's innovative real estate investment firms, which he founded on a theme of "value-added" strategies. He acts as managing member of all Kay Realty Holdings assets. He is also CEO of Smitty's Super Foodtown Stores, a 2 store supermarket which anchors two of his shopping centers.
Prior to KAY REALTY, Klein held key senior management positions in several national and regional development firms such as K Hovnanian and Dyson Kissner Moran where he created over three million sf of class A properties. Earlier, he served as chief appraiser of Central Savings Bank of New York and a senior executive and leader of Joint Ventures in the Home Life Insurance Company's mortgage investment division.
Klein holds a bachelors degree in economics from Upsala College and has completed professional graduate courses in real estate at Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Rutgers University and New York University. His appraisal training was provided by the American appraisal institute (MAI). He is a licensed broker in the state of New Jersey.
Columbia University’s GSAPP; Adjunct Instructor, New York University’s (NYU) Schack Institute of Real Estate; Adjunct Lecturer, Baruch College’s William Newman Department of Real Estate
New York City, New York
He teaches commercial real estate finance-related courses and Argus Valuation DCF software. He’s a Vice President at Lam’s American, an affiliate of the Lam NYC EB-5 Regional Centre and the Lam Group. His former roles include acquisitions and development for Time Equities, Inc, appraiser at Hudson View Appraisals, and retail leasing at Robert K. Futterman & Associates.
Senior Vice President, Asset Management & Real Estate Services,
Amy Lerseth has more than twenty years of experience in the commercial real estate industry and is primarily responsible for the execution of the investment strategy and business plan for assets valued in excess of $1.5 billion. She is directly responsible for the management of the real estate, asset management, and property management companies, as well as driving Buzz Oates’ strategic vision and growth. Lerseth is a member of NAIOP, the Association of Commercial Real Estate, for which she serves on the Board of Directors as president elect; the Urban Land Institute; NAIOP’s Investment Management II National Forum; and Sacramento Metro Chamber’s Economic Development Committee. She fosters professional growth in the commercial real estate industry as a member of the NAIOP Center for Education faculty and as an instructor of BOMA Internationals Foundations of Real Estate Management Courses. Lerseth is a graduate of University of California, Los Angeles, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English, with an emphasis on American studies. She is a graduate of the Sacramento Metro Chamber’s Leadership Sacramento program, a 2010 recipient of the Sacramento Business Journal’s 40 Under 40 award, a 2011 winner of the Sacramento Business Journal’s Woman Who Mean Business award, a 2012 honoree of Real Estate Forum’s national 40 Under 40 award, and in 2014 was named by Real Estate Forum as a Woman of Influence.
Senior Vice President Capital Markets,
Ryan Companies US, Inc.
Dan Levitt brings more than 25 years of real estate experience and capital investment expertise to his role as senior vice president of Capital Markets at Ryan Companies US, Inc. His work includes the analysis, origination and structuring of debt, equity and joint ventures as well as directing the funding process from inception to closing. Over the last five years, his capital markets team has managed dispositions, financings, acquisitions and joint ventures valued at more than $2 billion.
NAIOP Board of Directors
Executive Vice President-Partner,
Hilco Redevelopment Partners (HRP)
Mark G. Levy is responsible for HRP’s real estate development, acquisition, investment and capital structuring activities nationwide. Mark’s highly diverse career has spanned over 28 years and has included senior leadership roles in asset management, capital deployment and development for both public and private real estate companies.
Senior Vice President, Development,
Build Toronto, Inc.
Don Logie is a senior real estate executive with extensive experience in the development and operation of commercial, industrial and residential real estate with particular emphasis on mixed-use developments. Logie has been involved in the development of over 3,000 residential units and the asset management of over 20 million sq. ft. of retail and office developments.
As Senior Vice President, Development, Logie is responsible for directing commercial and industrial development from identification of innovative and marketable concepts through the implementation phases of planning, marketing and construction.
In 2008, he was acting president and CEO as well as Vice President, Development, for the City of Toronto Economic Development Corporation (TEDCO) overseeing the restructuring of city real estate and economic development functions into two new corporations. Prior to TEDCO, Logie was the global head of real estate for Magna International where he managed 400 properties around the world, and performed development and asset management roles at O&Y Enterprise, Brookfield Properties and Markborough Properties Inc. His international experience includes work in the United States, Europe, Mexico, the United Kingdom, China, Africa and the Middle East.
Logie is a member of the Professional Engineers of Ontario and of the International Conference of Shopping Centres. He received his Bachelor of Applied Science in Civil Engineering from the University of Waterloo and his MBA, graduating on the Dean’s list, from the University of Toronto.
RSM Development & Management
Bloomfield Hills, Mich.
As a principal in the real estate development firm of RSM Development & Management, L.L.C. in Bloomfield Hills, Mich., Mr. Marcus' primary responsibilities include the acquisition, development and first party property management of office, medical office and industrial properties in the metropolitan Detroit area. Since forming the firm ten years ago, RSM has acquired and/or developed a portfolio totaling over one million square feet with a market value of over $100M.
Mr. Marcus is a graduate of the University of Michigan (B.G.S.) and Wayne State University Law School (J.D.) and is a licensed Michigan real estate broker. He is president of the Michigan NAIOP Chapter Board and on the nonprofit board of directors for Gateway Counseling (Madison Heights, Mich.). Additionally, Mr. Marcus is a member of the Office Development I NAIOP Forum and received the NAIOP Developing Leaders Award in 2007.
NAIOP Board of Directors
EVP, Real Estate Development,
Jim Neyer leads Al. Neyer's business development activities with a balanced focus on client business objectives and project deliverables. Mr. Neyer has over 25 years of experience in commercial real estate, development, financing and construction.
Director of Business Development,
Greater Phoenix Economic Council
Jaime Northam, Director of Business Development, focuses on providing site selection services and real estate guidance across several key industries. Northam teams with national site selectors, real estate professionals and out-of-state companies in the comprehensive evaluation and decision-making of business relocation and/or expansion into the Greater Phoenix area. She primarily works with companies in the high-tech manufacturing, general manufacturing, logistics/distribution, healthcare and biotech industries.
Northam comes from a well-rounded commercial real estate background that includes 13 years of experience in market research, industrial brokerage, office and industrial development, office leasing and healthcare real estate asset management. Prior to joining GPEC, Northam served as Regional Asset Manager for Healthcare Trust of America’s (HTA) Midwest US portfolio of medical office buildings, valued at $165 million and distributed between five states. In this role, she oversaw the leasing, operations, capital investment and overall financial performance of her portfolio. Before HTA, Northam worked at The Alter Group as its Vice President of Real Estate for the Southwest Region and, prior to that, was in industrial brokerage at Grubb &Ellis|BRE Commercial. In the earlier years of her career, she managed the industrial and office sectors of Grubb &Ellis|BRE Commercial’s research department.
Northam is a Phoenix native and attended the University of Arizona, where she acquired a Bachelor’s degree in Communications. She sits on the St. Joseph’s Hospital Foundation Board of Directors; is a member of Arizona Association of Economic Development; and has been a member of NAIOP since 2003. She helped launch NAIOP’s award-winning local Developing Leader program and currently sits on the AZ Chapter’s Board of Directors. On a national level, she sits on the Chapter Relations and Membership Committee and has been a member of one of the elite national forums for 5 years (Trends in Real Estate Development III). She was awarded the “National Developing Leader of the Year” award by NAIOP in 2010 and was selected in 2009 by Real Estate Forum magazine as one of 50 women across the nation to receive their “Women of Influence” designation. Northam has also been featured in the Phoenix Business Journal, AZRE Magazine and NAIOP’s Development Magazine.
Clark Construction Group, LLC
Matt O'Malley is a vice president with Clark Construction Group, LLC, where he helps lead the acquisition of work efforts for the Mid Atlantic Region. Mr. O'Malley also works closely with the Preconstruction Services Group that provides budgeting and scheduling, as well as other project planning services during the design phase to institutions, public entities and private developers in the Washington, D.C. area. Mr. O'Malley joined Clark Construction Group, LLC in 2000 where he began working with the Clark estimating department. Mr. O'Malley moved on to serve as the project manager for the construction of the new International Monetary Fund Headquarters in Washington D.C., before joining the Preconstruction Services department in 2005.
Mr. O’Malley received a bachelor’s degree in architecture from the University of Virginia, a master of business administration from the University of Maryland and has completed the degree requirements for the master of science in real estate at The Johns Hopkins University.
Mr. O'Malley teaches Essentials of Design and Construction at the University of Maryland graduate real estate program, as well as two courses at Georgetown University's graduate real estate program: Introduction to Construction Management and Construction Estimating and Procurement. He is a LEED Accredited Professional, and a member of several professional organizations in the DC area including NAIOP, ULI, the Washington Building Congress and the DC Building Industry Association.
Nino Pedrelli, Ph.D. is a principal at State Street Realty Advisors, LLC, located in St. Louis Park Minnesota. State Street Realty Advisors provides a broad base of services, such as asset management, investment analysis, development consulting, and project management for family offices, individuals, non-profits and municipalities with real estate holdings.
MHD Partners LLC
Michael Pelt is President of MDH Partners, LLC. Prior to forming MDH Partners, Pelt was Chief Investment Officer and President of the Office Division of M.D. Hodges. He had been with Hodges more than six years. He was named President of the Office Division shortly after joining the company and was Chief Investment Officer since late 2002. He directed the development of the company's mixed-use office park, Huntcrest, which developed or sold approximately 200 acres during this period. As Chief Investment Officer, he also directed the acquisition of a 500,000 square feet industrial building in Nashville, Tenn.
Prior to joining Hodges, Pelt was Vice President of Marketing and Development for Technology Park/Atlanta where he oversaw marketing and development of a large mixed-use office development called Lenox Park. He also worked for Carter and Associates and began his career with Arthur Andersen & Co. Pelt is a former instructor for the CCIM institute.
Stearns Weaver Miller Weissler Alhadeff & Sitterson, P.A.
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
George Pincus is a transactional real estate lawyer with almost 30 years of experience. His practice includes the structuring and documentation of joint venture deals between developers and sponsors and private equity investors. He also has extensive experience in purchase and sale, real estate finance and leasing transactions. Pincus has been an active member of NAIOP for over 20 years and is a regular speaker at NAIOP education events.
Board of Directors
Property Reserve, Inc.
Salt Lake City, Utah
Ashley Powell has over 33 years in the commercial real estate industry. He joined Property Reserve, Inc. in 2017 to lead the acquisitions team and was named President in 2018. He leads a team of 240 professionals and oversees a global investment portfolio dedicated to building an enduring global portfolio of office, industrial, and apartment properties in addition to major land holdings. Under his leadership the company has expanded from a domestic US investor to being active on three continents. He has focused on institutionally proven strategies to reduce risk and volatility, beat industry average returns, and develop the next generation of leadership. Prior to joining Property Reserve, Inc., he was a partner and Head of Acquisitions - Western United States, for Bentall Kennedy U.S., a Sun Life Investment Management company, one of the top 20 largest real estate investment managers worldwide. Prior to that, he was a managing director at Deutsche Asset Management (formerly RREEF) where he put together transactions amounting to over 15 million square feet of space. He is a prior Chairman of NAIOP, an 18,000-member commercial real estate organization, and a former President of the San Francisco Chapter.
NAIOP Distinguished Fellow
Associate Professor of Property Management and Real Estate Law, William and Mary Alice Junior Faculty Fellow,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Dustin C. Read, Ph.D./JD is an Associate Professor of Property Management and Real Estate at Virginia Tech, where he holds the William and Mary Alice Park Junior Faculty Fellowship in the Program in Real Estate. His research interests include asset management and property management, housing and land use policy, and urban revitalization.
Sherin and Lodgen LLP
Ronald W. Ruth, LEED AP, is Partner with the Boston law firm Sherin and Lodgen LLP. He is co-chair of the firm’s Environmental Law Group, former Managing Partner and former chair of the firm’s Real Estate department. He concentrates his practice on environmental, real estate and land use law. Ron became a LEED Accredited Professional in July 2008.
IMS Worldwide, Inc.
Steve Schellenberg has been involved in logistics, manufacturing, distribution and transportation for more than 30 years. His experience includes managing all aspects of automotive supply chains, global distribution and third-party logistics. He has extensive experience in the North America Free Trade Agreement trading regions and has managed air cargo, freight forwarding and air charter operations.
Greenberg Traurig, P.A.
Alan C. Sheppard, Jr., is a real estate shareholder with Greenberg Traurig, P.A.'s Orlando, Florida office. Alan has wide-ranging experience in commercial real estate finance and development, with a particular emphasis on mortgage and construction financing, mezzanine lending as well as asset-based finance and working capital loan transactions. He also is experienced in structured finance transactions, syndications and energy project finance transactions. Alan is currently the President of the NAIOP Central Florida Chapter, is a past-president of NAIOP of Florida, and was previously the Chairman of NAIOP's National Environment and Infrastructure Committee. Through his work with NAIOP, he actively lobbies on behalf of the commercial development community both in Washington, D.C. and in Tallahassee.
Vice President, Commercial Property Groups,
Marcus & Millichap
Yitzie Sommer is Vice President of the Commercial Property Groups at Marcus & Millichap Real Estate Investment Services. In this capacity, he is tasked with providing research, marketing and business development support to the firm's agents and its clients. He received a bachelor's degree in Politics from Brandeis University in 2001.
After receiving his undergraduate degree, Yitzie started his career at Marcus & Millichap as research manager for the Milwaukee and Indianapolis office as well as the National Office & Industrial Properties Group. After adding the Chicago area to his territory, he moved to focus exclusively on the office and industrial sectors in 2004 and in 2010 became the Senior Manager for the Commercial Property Groups, which includes office, industrial, retail and special assets.
IMS Worldwide, Inc.
Curtis Spencer is the President of IMS Worldwide, Inc., headquartered in Houston, Texas. He is a nationally regarded expert on matters related to logistics and intermodal shipping trends, ports, inland ports and rail-served logistics centers; the development and utilization of Foreign-Trade Zones for importers and exporters; and all aspects of customs issues and compliance, specifically those related to homeland security.
Vice President and Regional Manager,
Oak Brook, Illinois
Kit Sultz is responsible for the leasing and management of a 10 million square foot portfolio encompassing the northern Chicago area industrial market. He joined CenterPoint Properties after the sale of Prime Group Realty Trust's Industrial Division to CenterPoint Properties in December 2004. Sultz served as Vice President, Leasing, for CenterPoint Properties. Prior to his appointment as Vice President, he served as Regional Manager in April 2006. Before joining CenterPoint Properties, Sultz was Senior Vice President, Industrial Division, for Prime Group Realty Trust from November of 1997 until November 2004 where he had overall asset management responsibilities for Prime's industrial assets.
Jason Ting is co-founder of Ting Financial Group, a niche private equity real estate investment firm, and principal of Ting Realty, a full service real estate development, management and brokerage company. His direct responsibilities include acquisitions and dispositions, property management and leasing, domestic and foreign client relations, and new business formation. Ting blogs about his work and personal life journeys via JasTing.com, and is actively involved in his local community church leading personal finance workshops.
Executive Vice President,
Jay Todisco is executive vice president and a member of the executive team and board of directors at Ware Malcomb. With over 35 years of architectural experience in the commercial real estate industry, Todisco has extensive expertise in architecture and planning of various building types including industrial, distribution/logistics, office, retail, healthcare and hospitality. He has managed large scale projects throughout the United States and abroad for major developers and corporate clients. He is focused on building and maintaining client relationships on an international scale, while providing hands on architecture and planning services to North America’s leading development companies and end users.
Hickey Smith, LLP
New York, New York
Barry J. Trilling serves as Of Counsel to the national law firm Hickey Smith, LLP, where he leads the firm’s Environmental Law practice. Clients call on him to assist on a wide variety of matters with regard to the environment and "green" business and real estate issues. These include business and real estate transactions, due diligence investigations, site remediation, brownfields development, wetlands, insurance transactions and claims, regulatory compliance counseling, mold and asbestos issues, governmental relations, legislation, rule making, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) matters, and both administrative and judicial litigation.
Daniel F. Mulvihill Professor of Commercial Real Estate & Academic Director of MSRE Program,
University of San Diego
San Diego, California
Charles Tu is the Daniel F. Mulvihill Professor of Commercial Real Estate and Academic Director of the MS in Real Estate program in the Burnham-Moores Center for Real Estate at the University of San Diego. He teaches a variety of courses at both the graduate and undergraduate levels, including real estate finance and investment, real estate capital markets, real estate management, and real estate development. He is also the principal instructor of Advanced Real Estate Finance in Urban Land Institute’s Real Estate School. Tu earned his PhD in business administration from The George Washington University in 1999 and received the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation in 2000. He became a LEED Accredited Professional in 2009 and is ARGUS Software Certified for both ARGUS Valuation-DCF and Developer. Tu is also a NAIOP Distinguished Fellow.
Vice Chairman - Capital Markets Group,
After 40 years of working in Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Companies real estate department Greg Walz is currently in retirement. His last position at Northwestern was managing director for real estate equities. Mr. Walz was responsible for setting and implementing the real estate equity investment strategy nationally and selection of new investment opportunities. Prior to this position, Mr. Walz was responsible for directing and managing the mortgage loan investment activities and portfolio management for the eastern portion of the United States for 4 years, prior to that he managed the Atlanta Regional Office for 25 years investing in both debt and equity investments along with oversight of the portfolio, including asset dispositions. Walz holds a B.A. and a M.B.A. from the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. He joined NAIOP in 1985 and is also a member of ICSC. Mr. Walz serves on the Executive Board for NAIOP and the NAIOP Wisconsin Board. He is a member of the Capital Markets III National Forum.
President & CEO,
Simons & Woodard Inc
Santa Rosa, Califorina
Joan Woodard is president and CEO of Simons & Woodard – a Santa Rosa, California, based management, architecture and development firm. She is responsible for overseeing the organization’s architecture, marketing, leasing, property, and management activities. A member of NAIOP since 1987, Ms. Woodard was chair of NAIOP’s National Board of Directors in 1994. She was also a member of the Private Developer II Forum, chair of the Awards Committee, and was president of the Georgia Chapter. Ms. Woodard is currently a committed faculty member of NAIOP’s Center for Education.
Cornerstone Real Estate Advisors
Mr. Zatko leads Cornerstone’s Capital Markets team and is responsible for the Capital Markets portfolio, funds containing CMBS, real estate derivative instruments, REIT debt, commercial real estate collateralized debt obligation investments and residential investments. He is also responsible for the securitization of commercial mortgage loans. He joined Cornerstone in 2010, its affiliate Babson Capital management in 2000, and was previously a Director with MassMutual, which he joined in 1996. Prior to joining MassMutual, Zatko was a partner in a regional appraisal/consulting firm and a senior appraiser for Cushman & Wakefield. He has more than 30 years of commercial real estate experience. He earned a BS degree in Real Estate/Finance from Pennsylvania State University. He currently holds Chartered Financial Analyst, Chartered Real Estate Investor, Appraisal Institute, and Certified Commercial Investment Member designations.