The TMDL for the Chesapeake Bay watershed includes new water implementation plans (WIPs) submitted by the District of Columbia and the six states within the 64,000 square mile of Chesapeake Bay watershed - Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia. While EPA would like for the states to take the lead, the EPA has also built-in federal enforcement measures or "backstops" though the TMDL process to force pollutant reduction levels if the District's and states' WIPs fall short of meeting their goals.
The aggressive action taken by the EPA is rooted in President Obama signing an Executive Order declaring the Chesapeake Bay a national treasure and instructing the federal government to work together in reducing pollution discharges and restoring the Bay. The EPA has taken the lead and asserts existing authority under the Clean Water Act allows them to move forward with the "pollution diet" for the Chesapeake Bay.
The federal TMDL for the Chesapeake Bay, along with the WIP plans submitted by the states and the District of Columbia, would apply new water treatment requirements for both existing and future commercial properties and would dramatically impact local land use decisions and agricultural operations throughout the Bay's watershed.
On January 10, 2011, the American Farm Bureau (AFB) filed a lawsuit in federal court to stop EPA's approach towards cleaning up the Chesapeake Bay The AFB claims that the rule unlawfully "micromanages state actions", that the EPA relied on a flawed model incorporating inaccurate assumptions and that the EPA process did not allow for meaningful public input under the federal Administrative Procedure Act.
In the fall of 2013, the U.S. District Court ruled against AFB and other organizations who had joined the lawsuit by upholding EPA’s authority to enforce a federal TMDL on the Chesapeake and its tributaries. Twenty-one state attorneys general and eight counties have filed a friend of the court briefs in support of the plaintiffs citing states’ rights. The case has been appealed to the U.S. Third Circuit Court of Appeals.
NAIOP recognizes the importance of the nation's natural resources and ecosystems, including the Chesapeake Bay. However, as EPA and the states move forward with implementing a "pollution diet" for the Chesapeake Bay, NAIOP recognizes important issues that require further discussion:
- An economic and cost assessment of meeting discharge reductions under the TMDL and WIPs
- Additional transparency and clarity on federal model assumption and conclusions
- A technical feasibility analysis
- A water quality credit and trading program
- A fair and balanced sharing in pollution reduction requirements within the watershed.
States and District of Columbia submitted their final Phase II Water Implementation Plans on or before March 2012.
EPA is currently reviewing Bay models based on best available science and whether these models need tweaking before submission of Phase III implementation plans and potential modifications to Bay TMDL allocations.
State and the District of Columbia must submit draft Phase III Water Implementation Plans by June 1, 2017 with final plans due by November 1 of the same year. These plans are to ensure all practices and procedures are in place by 2025 to restore the Chesapeake Bay.